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Last update: January, 19 2021

Australia

flag of Australia
Government
NameCommonwealth of Australia
Government typefederal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy (a Commonwealth realm)
CapitalCanberra (426,704 (2019))
CurrencyAustralian dollar (AUD)
Organization
Member StateCommonwealth of Nations
Observer StateSouth Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
People
Population (2020)25,499,881(54th)
Density of population3.3 P/km2 (192nd)
NationalityAustralian
Official languages
English
Ethnic groups (2011)
English25.9%
Australian25.4%
Irish7.5%
Scottish6.4%
Italian3.3%
German3.2%
Chinese3.1%
Indian1.4%
Greek1.4%
Dutch1.2%
Australian aboriginal0.5%
Other15.3%
Unspecified5.4%
Religion
Protestant23.1%
Anglican13.3%
Uniting Church3.7%
Presbyterian and Reformed2.3%
Baptist1.5%
Pentecostal1.1%
Lutheran0.7%
Other Protestant0.5%
Roman Catholic22.6%
Other Christian4.2%
Muslim2.6%
Buddhist2.4%
Orthodox2.3%
Eastern Orthodox2.1%
Oriental Orthodox0.2%
Hindu1.9%
Other1.3%
None30.1%
Unspecified9.6%
Life expectancy (2020)
Male80.5 years
Female85.0 years
Total population82.7 years (14th)
Homicides
Total (2018)0.9 per 100,000 people (145th)
Geography
Land area7,682,300 km2
water area58,920 km2
total area7,741,220 km2 (7th)
Mean elevation330 m
Lowest point
Lake Eyre-15 m
Highest point
Mount Kosciuszko2,228 m
Land use (2016)
Agricultural land52.9%
Arable land11.6%
Permanent crops0.09%
Permanent pasture88.4%
Forest16.2%
Other30.9%
Urbanization
Urban population (2020)86.2%
Rate of urbanization1.43% annual rate of change (2015 – 2020)
Economy
Labor force (2017)12.91 million  (44th)
Agriculture3.6%
Industry21.1%
Services75.3%
Unemployment rate (2017)5.6% (81rd)
GDP (PPP) (estimate 2020)
Total$1.423 trillion (19th)
Per capita$54,799 (17th)
GDP (nominal) (estimate 2020)
Total$1.375 trillion (13th)
Per capita$52,952 (10th)
GDP by sector (estimate 2017)
Agriculture3.6%
Industrie25.3%
Services71.2%
Exports (2017)$231.6 billion (22nd)
Exports partners (2017)
China33.5%
Japan14.6%
South Korea6.6%
India5%
Hong Kong4%
Imports (2017)$221 billion (24th)
Imports partners (2017)
China22.9%
US10.8%
Japan7.5%
Thailand5.1%
Germany4.9%
South Korea4.5%

Australia on the world map

Australia on the world map

Australia top 10 largest cities (2019)

  1. Sydney (5,312,163)
  2. Melbourne (5,078,193)
  3. Brisbane (2,514,184)
  4. Perth (2,085,973)
  5. Adelaide (1,359,760)
  6. Gold Coast (693,671)
  7. Newcastle (491,474)
  8. Canberra (462,136)
  9. Sunshine Coast (341,069)
  10. Wollongong (306,034)

Demography

Population pyramid

Population pyramid of Australia (2020)

Age structure data

Estimate for 2020:

  • 0-14 years: 18.72% (male 2,457,418/female 2,309,706)
  • 15-24 years: 12.89% (male 1,710,253/female 1,572,794)
  • 25-54 years: 41.15% (male 5,224,840/female 5,255,041)
  • 55-64 years: 11.35% (male 1,395,844/female 1,495,806)
  • 65 years and over: 15.88% (male 1,866,761/female 2,177,996) (2020 est.)

Remark: the age structure of a population affects a nation’s key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest.

Population from 1950 to 2020

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Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, Online Edition. Rev. 1.


Evolution of the life expectancy from 1960 to 2018

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Source: World Development Indicators, The World Bank

Economy

Agriculture:

wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits, cattle, sheep, poultry

Industries:

mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel

Exports – commodities:

iron ore, coal, gold, natural gas, beef, aluminum ores and conc, wheat, meat (excluding beef), wool, alumina, alcohol

Imports – commodities:

motor vehicles, refined petroleum, telecommunication equipment and parts, crude petroleum, medicaments, goods vehicles, gold, computers

Time zone and current time in Australia

Go to our interactive map to get the current time in Australia

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