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Last update: January, 21 2021


flag of India
NameRepublic of India
HindiBhārat Gaṇarājya
Government typeFederal parliamentary republic
CapitalNew Delhi – urban district located in the city of Delhi (257,803 (2011) for new Delhi and 11,007,835 (2011) for Delhi)
CurrencyIndian rupee (INR)
Member StateSouth Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

Commonwealth of Nations
Population (2020)1,380,004,385 (2nd)
Density of population406.5 P/km2 (19th)
Official languages
22 officially recognized regional languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and Hindustani
Ethnic groups (2000)
Mongoloid and other3%
Religions (2011)
Other and unspecified2%
Life expectancy (2020)
Male68.4 years
Female71.2 years
Total population69.7 years (167th)
Total (2018)3.1 per 100,000 people (82nd)
Land area2,973,193 km2
water area314,070 km2
total area3,287,263 km2 (8th)
Mean elevation160 m
Lowest point
Indian Ocean0 m
Highest point
Kanchenjunga8,586 m
Land use (2011)
Agricultural land60.5%
Arable land52.8%
Permanent crops4.2%
Permanent pasture3.5%
Urban population (2020)34.9%
Rate of urbanization2.37% annual rate of change (2015 – 2020)
Labor force (2017)521.9 million  (2nd)
Labor force by occupation (2014)
Services 31%
Unemployment rate (2017)8.5% (122nd)
GDP (PPP) (estimate 2020)
Total$12.363 trillion (3rd)
Per capita$9,027 (118th)
GDP (nominal) (estimate 2020)
Total$3.202 trillion (5th)
Per capita$2,338 (139th)
GDP by sector (estimate 2016)
Exports (2017)$304.1 billion (19th)
Exports partners (2017)
Hong Kong4.9%
Imports (2017)$452.2 billion (11th)
Imports partners (2017)
Saudi Arabia4.8%

Where is India located on the world map?

India on the world map

India is a huge peninsula located in southern Asia. It has about 7,500 km of coastline on the Indian Ocean. India is the second most populous country and the seventh largest country in the world.

Map of India with bordering countries
Map of India with bordering countries

The peninsula is surrounded on the west by the Arabian Sea and on the east by the Bay of Bengal. In the latter are the Adaman-and-Nicobar Islands which belong to India.

The Indian coastline stretches for more than seven thousand kilometers. The country has common borders with Pakistan to the northwest, China to the north and east-northeast, Nepal to the northeast, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar (or Burma) to the east and northeast. On the Indian Ocean, India is close to the Maldives to the south-southwest, Sri Lanka to the south and Indonesia to the southeast.

Physical map of India
Physical map india

In the north, India is limited by the Himalayas from which flows the 3 major rivers of India: the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. These 3 large rivers form a vast plain: the Indo-Gangetic plain. It is in this plain that the capital New Delhi is located. This plain forms the real historical heart of the country by sheltering high places of Indian civilization. East of the Indo-Gangetic plain, we find the largest delta in the world at the mouths of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. As for the southern part of India, it is partly made up of the vast Deccan plateau.

Political map of India with states and cities

Political map of India with states and cities

States and Union territories


StateCapitalLargest cityPopulationArea
Andhra PradeshVisakhapatnam (Administrative)
Amaravati (Legislative)
Kurnook (Judicial)
Visakhapatnam49,506,799160,205 2 km2
Arunachal PradeshItanagarItanagar1,383,72783,743 km2
AssamDispurGuwahati31,205,57678,550 km2
BiharPatnaPatna104,099,45294,163 km2
ChhattisgarhNava RaipurRaipur25,545,198135,194 km2
GoaPanajiVasco da Gama1,458,5453,702 km2
GujaratGandhinagarAhmedabad60,439,692196,024 km2
HaryanaChandigarhFaridabad25,351,46244,212 km2
Himachal PradeshShimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)
Shimla6,864,60255,673 km2
JharkhandRanchiJamshedpur32,988,13474,677 km2
KarnatakaBengaluruBengaluru61,095,297191,791 km2
KeralaThiruvananthapuramKochi33,406,06138,863 km2
Madhya PradeshBhopalIndore72,626,809308,252 km2
MaharashtraMumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter)
Mumbai112,374,333307,713 km2
ManipurImphalImphal2,855,79422,347 km2
MeghalayaShillongShillong2,966,88922,720 km2
MizoramAizawlAizawl1,097,20621,081 km2
NagalandKohimaDimapur1,978,50216,579 km2
OdishaBhubaneswarBhubaneswar41,974,218155,820 km2
PunjabChandigarhLudhiana27,743,33850,362 km2
RajasthanJaipurJaipur68,548,437342,269 km2
SikkimGangtokGangtok610,5777,096 km2
Tamil NaduChennaiChennai72,147,030130,058 km2
TelanganaHyderabadHyderabad35,193,978114,840 km2
TripuraAgartalaAgartala3,673,91710,492 km2
Uttar PradeshLucknowKanpur199,812,341243,286 km2
UttarakhandGairsain (Summer)
Dehradun (Winter)
Dehradun10,086,29253,483 km2
West BengalKolkataKolkata91,276,11588,752 km2

Union territories

StateCapitalLargest cityPopulationArea
Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPort BlairPort Blair380,581 8,249 km2
ChandigarhChandigarh1,055,450114 km2
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and DiuDamanDaman586,956603 km2
DelhiNew Delhi16,787,9411,490 km2
Jammu and KashmirSrinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
Srinagar12,258,43355,538 km2
LadakhLeh (Summer)
Kargil (Winter)
Leh290,492174,852 km2
LakshadweepKavarattiKavaratti64,47332 km2
PuducherryPuducherryPuducherry1,247,953492 km2

River map of India

river map of india

List of the major rivers of India with their length:

RankNameLength in IndiaTotal length
1Ganges2525 km (1569 mi)2525 km (1569 mi)
2Godavari1465 km (910 mi)1465 km (910 mi)
3Yamuna1376 km (855 mi)1376 km (855 mi)
4Narmada1312 km (815 mi)1312 km (815 mi)
5Krishna1300 km (808 mi)1300 km (808 mi)
6Indus1114 km (692 mi)3180 km (1976 mi)
7Brahmaputra916 km (569 mi)2900 km (1802 mi)
8Mahanadi890 km (553 mi)890 km (553 mi)
9Kaveri800 km (497 mi)800 km (497 mi)
10Tapti724 km (450 mi)724 km (450 mi)

India top 10 largest cities (2011)

  1. Mumbai (12,442,373)
  2. Delhi (11,007,835)
  3. Bangalore (8,436,675)
  4. Hyderabad (6,809,970)
  5. Ahmedabad (5,570,585)
  6. Chennai (4,681,087)
  7. Kolkata (Calcutta) (4,486,679)
  8. Surat (4,467,797)
  9. Pune (3,124,458)
  10. Jaipur (3,046,163)


Population pyramid

population pyramid of India (2020)

Age structure data

Estimate for 2020:

  • 0-14 years: 26.31% (male 185,017,089/female 163,844,572)
  • 15-24 years: 17.51% (male 123,423,531/female 108,739,780)
  • 25-54 years: 41.56% (male 285,275,667/female 265,842,319)
  • 55-64 years: 7.91% (male 52,444,817/female 52,447,038)
  • 65 years and over: 6.72% (male 42,054,459/female 47,003,975)

Remark: the age structure of a population affects a nation’s key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest.

Population from 1950 to 2020


Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, Online Edition. Rev. 1.

India’s population has more or less doubled in 50 years and in 2020 it was estimated to be around 1.3 billion people. Which makes it the second most populous country in the world behind China (around 1.4 billion).

Density of population

Map of the density of population in India
Map of the density of population in India

India’s population density is also among the highest in the world. The population is mainly concentrated in large urban centers and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

The population is predominantly rural (2/3 of the population live in the countryside), but India, however, has more than 7 cities with more than 5 million inhabitants (Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Chennai – formerly known as Madras, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Delhi). There are also many cities with more than 1 million inhabitants, which are spread over the whole territory.

Evolution of the life expectancy from 1960 to 2018


Source: World Development Indicators, The World Bank


Religion map of India
Religion map of India

India is predominantly Hindu. Hinduism accounts for about 79.8% of pollution and coexists with large minorities. Among which Muslims who account for about 14.2% of the population. With these 172 million Muslims, India is the third largest Muslim country in the world. Then follow the Christians with 2.3% pollution. Then the Sikhs with 1.7% of the pollution. Then the Buddhists with 0.3% of the pollution and finally the Jains with 0.3% of the Indian pollution.



rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish


textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals

Exports – commodities:

petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel

Imports – commodities:

crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel

Time zone and current time in India

Go to our interactive map to get the current time in India